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Wednesday, January 25, 2012

Exam 70-642: TS: Windows Server 2008 Network Infrastructure, Configuring MCITP Brain Dump

Click the below link for Exam 70-642: TS: Windows Server 2008 Network Infrastructure, Configuring MCITP Brain Dump

                           www.mediafire.com/?rsk9csdsu8lu779

RHCE interview Questions



FOr RHCE Interview Questions please click below link

http://www.studentcpu.com/2009/09/linux-string-processing-command-less.html



The ext3 file system in Linux

The ext3 filesystem, developed byRedHat extends the popular ext2 filesystem with the introduction of journaling.

What is a Journaling Filesystem?

A journaling filesystem keeps a journal or log of the changes that are beingmade to the filesystem during disk writing that can be used to rapidlyreconstruct corruptions that may occur due to events such a system crash orpower outage. The level of journaling performed by the file system can beconfigured to provide a number of levels of logging depending on your needs andperformance requirements.

What are the Advantages of a Journaling Filesystem?

There are a number of advantages to using a journaling files system.

Both the size and volume of data stored on disk drives has grown exponentiallyover the years. The probelm with a non-journaled file system is that followinga crash the fsck (filesystem consistency check) utility has to be run. fsckwill scan the entire filesystem validating all entries and making sure thatblocks are allocated and referenced correctly. If it finds a corrupt entry itwill attempt to fix the problem. The issues here are two-fold. Firstly, thefsck utility will not always be able to repair damage and you will end upwith  data in the lost+found directory. This is data that was being usedby an application but the system no longer knows where they were referencefrom. The other problem is the issue of time. It can take a very long time tocomplete the fsck process on a large file system leading to unacceptable downtime.

A journaled file system records information in a log area on a disk (thejournal and log do not need to be on the same device) during each write. Thisis a essentially an "intent to commit" data to the filesystem. Theamount of information logged is configurable and ranges from not logginganything, to logging what is known as the "metadata" (i.e ownership,date stamp information etc), to logging the "metadata" and the datablocks that are to be written to the file. Once the log is updated the systemthen writes the actual data to the appropriate areas of the filesystem andmarks an entry in the log to say the data is committed.

After a crash the filesystem can very quickly be brought back on-line using thejournal log reducing what could take minutes using fsck to seconds with theadded advantage that there is considerably less chance of data loss orcorruption.

What is a Journal Checkpoint?
When a file is accessed on thefilesystem, the last snapshot of that file is read from the disk into memory.The journal log is then consulted to see if any uncommitted changes have beenmade to the file since the data was last written to the file (essentiallylooking for an "intention to commit" in the log entry as describedabove). At particular points the filesystem will update file data on the diskfrom the uncommited log entries and trim those entries from the log. Committingoperations from the log and synchronizing the log and its associated filesystemis called a checkpoint.
What are the disadvantages of aJournaled Filesystem?

Nothing in life is is free and ext3 and journaled filesystems are no exceptionto the rule. The biggest draw back of journaling is in the area of performancesimply because more disk writes are required to store information in the log.In practice, however, unless you are running system where disk performance isabsolutely critical the performance difference will be negligable.

What Journaling Options are Available with the ext3 filesystem?

The ext3 filesystem provides three options. These are as follows:
  • writeback - greater speed at the price of limited data integrity. Allows old data to show up in files after a crash and relies on kernel's standard writebacks to flush buffers.
  • ordered -  that the data is consistent with the file system; recently-written files will never show up with garbage contents after a crash at the cost of some speed.
  • journal - Journals all data requiring greater journal space and reduced performance. The most secure data retention policy.
Doesthe Journal log have to be on the same disk as the filesystem?

No, the ext3 journal log does not have to be on the same physical device as thefilesystem it is logging. On a RedHat Linux the journal device can be specifiedusing the journal_device= option with the -journal-options commandline argument of the tune2fs utility.

How to check Previous IP ADdress Details in windows Machines

How to check previous IP address details if customer not aware about it.
Release
Windows XP

Problem
After replacing motherboard customer not aware about previous IP address details.

Solution

In this case using registry we can find out previous IP address details, Windows Registry path should be specified below:


Current and previous IP address details will list under:
“HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\Tcpip\Prameters\Interfaces”

Windows Explorer has stopped working Error in Windows 7



                                                    Windows Explorer has stopped working Error in Windows 7

Problem:

The most annoying error messages in Windows Operating system are "Windows Explorer has stopped working" -  "Windows Installer has stopped working".

Operating system:

Windows vista,Windows 7

Suggested Solutions:

Method1:

    Go to the Start button.
    In the Search box, type "regedit" (without quotes) and press Enter.
    Browse the following registry key: "HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\ Microsoft\ SQMClient\Windows\DisabledSessions".
    On the right window pane, delete the subkey: "Machine Throttling".
    Reboot your computer.

Method 2:

In Administrator mode, At the command prompt, type "chkdsk /r /f" (without quotes) and press Enter. Restart the System.

Method 3:

 Incompatible Drivers installed while updating the Sound Card,Graphics Card, LAN Drivers etc. So Roll back the driver that you installed recently.It may also happen due to old drivers. Go the official download page for the respective hardware  to get the driver updated.

Method 4 :

    Press the key combination Windows logo key + R to open the Run dialog.
    Type gpedit.msc in the Run dialog and press Enter.
    In the Local Group Policy Editor navigate to
    Computer Configuration Administrative Templates System Internet Communication Management Internet Communication Settings.
    You would find a setting on the right hand side pane — Turn Off Windows Customer Experience Improvement program
    Double-click on this setting and choose Enabled and then click OK.
    Close the Local Group Policy Editor windows




STOP 0X0000006B (Parameter1,Parameter2, Parameter3,Parameter4 ):PROCESS1_INITIALIZATIO_ FAILED ERROR


"PROCESS1_INITIALIZATION_FAILED” ERROR

Release
Windows 7 Professional (32B)

Problem:
While booting in Windows 7 the following error showing in blue screen.
STOP 0X0000006B (Parameter1, Parameter2, Parameter3, Parameter4):"PROCESS1_INITIALIZATION_FAILED-WINDOWS 7. This problem prevents the system from starting and all options in the boot menu, safe mode, VGA mode, etc. lead to the same BSOD.


Solution:

This issue occurs because the Bootcat.cache file is corrupted or because the size of the Bootcat.cache file is changed since the last successful start.
On computers running any of the Windows NT family (i.e. Windows NT 4.0, Windows 2000 and Windows Xp, Windows Server 2003), the BSOD is caused by a missing DLL file (usually NTDLL.DLL).
            To fix this, use Windows CD to boot to the recovery console .Then type
"dir ntdll.dll"
 The dir command allows you to see the available files in that  directory. The ntdll.dll file is a file created by Microsoft that has a description of "NT Layer DLL" and is the file that contains NT kernel functions. This file is located in the c:\windows\system32 or c:\winnt\system32 directory and can also be found in the c:\i386 directory.
            If it shows, the file may be corrupted. If you get a "file not found" message, then type
 "dir ntdll.dll/s"
The file may show up usually in c:\windows\system32\dllcache.If that's the case, then type
 "copy dllcache\ntdll.dll "
 and you will then get
"1 file(s) copied"
If the file is missing completely, then with the Windows CD in your CD drive, type
 "copy [d:]\i386\ntdll.dll " , where [d:] is the letter assigned to your CD drive
 Now, reboot the machine.

            On computers running any of the Windows Vista family (i.e. all editions of Windows Vista and Windows 7; all editions of Windows Server 2008). The BSOD is caused by a disposable file by the name of "bootcat.cache" located usually in "c:\windows\system32\codeintegrity" which has been corrupted.

If it is an intermittent problem, this can be solve by manually deleting bootcache.cat from C:\Windows\system32\CodeIntegrity
As per Microsoft, there is no hotfix available for this problem. They recommends to update Service Pack 1. We can use the following link to download the Service Pack.
Windows 7 Service Pack 1
http://windows.microsoft.com/installwindows7sp1 (http://windows.microsoft.com/installwindows7sp1)
Windows 2008 R2 Service Pack 1
 If Windows is stuck in a repair and restart loop, insert Windows CD and select command prompt option. Then type,
“del c:\Windows\system32\CodeIntegrity\bootcat.cache”
Then reboot the pc.


Bootmgr is missing error in windows 7



Bootmgr is missing error in windows 7
Release

Windows 7

Problem

While booting in to windows 7 showing the error “bootmgr is missing. Press Ctrl+Alt+Del to restart”.

Solution

Method 1:

1.     Please insert the Windows 7 DVD media and restart the computer.
2.     Choose your language settings, and then click "Next" option.
3.     Select the option "Repair your computer".
4.     Select the operating system you want to repair, and then click "Next".
5.    On the System Recovery Options screen, select the option "Startup Repair". Startup Repair might prompt you to make choices as it tries to fix the problem, and if necessary, it might restart your computer as it makes repairs.

Method 2:
1.     Please insert the Windows 7 DVD media and restart the computer
2.     Select the option "Repair computer".
3.     Select "Cancel" to exit the repair wizard.
4.     Select "command prompt" option from the available options
5.     Type your "DVD-DRIVE LETTER" in command prompt, press ENTER.
6.     Let us assume windows 7 is installed in C drive, type "copy bootmgr c:\" without codes, press ENTER.
7.    Type "exit", press ENTER.
8.     Restart computer.
9.  Select "start windows normally".

Method 3:

1. Please insert the Windows 7 DVD media and restart the computer.
2. Choose your language settings, and then click "Next" option.
3. Select the option "Repair your computer".
4. Select the operating system you want to repair, and then click "Next".
5. In the System Recovery Options dialog box, select Command Prompt.
6. Type Bootrec /RebuildBcd , and then press ENTER.
7.Restart the computer
  

Error The current printer driver is not compatible with a policy enabled on your computer that blocks Windows NT 4.0 or Windows 2000 kernel mode drivers




Error The current printer driver is not compatible with a policy enabled on your computer that blocks Windows NT 4.0 or Windows 2000 kernel mode drivers

Release
Windows 2003 server SP2,Windows XP

Problem
When you install printer drivers , you may receive the following error message and cannot install printer.
“Unable to Install Printer. The printer driver is not compatible with a policy enabled on your computer that blocks Windows NT 4.0 drivers. If you want to use this driver, contact your system administrator about disabling this policy”


Solution

This behavior occurs because Windows does not support Kernel mode print drivers by default.

For windows XP
Open the group policy editor by typing gpedit.msc on RUN prompt and locate the path
Under Local Computer Policy, double-click Computer Configuration. Double-click Administrative Templates, and then double-click Printers.Right-click Disallow installation of printers using kernel mode drivers, and then click properties.On the Setting tab, click Disabled, and then click OK.
If you enable this the installation of kernel-mode printer drivers will be prevented.
For updating group policy use gpupadte /force command in command prompt

For windows 2003 server

Open the group policy editor by typing gpedit.msc on RUN prompt and locate the path
Under Local Computer Policy, double-click Computer Configuration. Double-click Administrative Templates, and then double-click Printers.Right-click Disallow installation of printers using kernel mode drivers.
or
Default Domain Controller Policy / Computer Configuration / Administrative Templates / Printers / Disallow installation of printers using kernel-mode drivers. And then click properties.On the Setting tab, click Disabled, and then click OK.
For updating group policy use gpupadte /force command in command prompt


Mapped Drive Connection to Network Share May Be Lost


Mapped Drive Connection to Network Share May Be Lost

Release
Windows 7,Windows 2008 server enterprise

Problem
 The mapped drive may be disconnected after a regular interval of inactivity, and Windows Explorer may display a red "X" on the icon of the mapped drive. However, if you try to access or browse the mapped drive, it reconnects quickly.

Solution
This behavior occurs because the systems can drop idle connections after a specified time-out period (by default, 15 minutes) to prevent wasting server resources on unused sessions. The connection can be re-established very quickly, if required.

Method1:

1.Open registry editor and locate the following path
  
    HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\lanmanserver\parameters
 2. In the right pane, click the autodisconnect value, and then on the Edit menu, click Modify. If the autodisconnect value does not exist, follow these steps:
        On the Edit menu, point to New, and then click REG_DWORD.
        Type autodisconnect, and then press ENTER.
        On the Edit menu, click Modify.
         Click Hexadecimal.
   3. In the Value data box, type ffffffff, and then click OK. Close the registry editor and restart the PC


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Boot.ini tab is missing in MSCONFIG



Boot.ini tab is missing in MSCONFIG


Release
Windows XP SP2

Problem
When we start MSCONFIG.EXE the BOOT.INI tab which usually appears, may be missing


Solution
This problem may simply be a file permissions issue. To check this you can verify that by typing C:\Boot.ini in Start, Run dialog. If you get Access Denied or similar error, that explains the problem. Otherwise checkout the registry entries.
Open Regedit and locate the following path

    “HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Shared Tools\MSConfig” .In the right-pane, delete the value named Boot.ini  (if found).Close Registry Editor and restart the windows explorer.try to open msconfig



Windows Cannot Set a Default Printer


Windows Cannot Set a Default Printer

Release
Windows 2000,Windows XP, Windows Vista, Windows 7

Problem
When we try to set a default printer, after changing the default printer in the printer’s control panel it reverts back to the previous default printer.

Solution
To fix this problem we need to change device value in registry.
    Open registry editor and locate the path
“HKEY_CURRENT_USER/ SOFTWARE/ MICROSOFT/ WINDOWS NT/ CURRENT VERSION/ WINDOWS”




  On the right pane Change entry for Device that has winspool,Ne00; delete whatever printer there is in the entry and just leave winspool,Ne00.Close the registry editor and restart the windows explorer.




Cannot access shared files and folders or browse computers


                                Cannot access shared files and folders or browse computers

Release
Windows XP

Problem
When we trying to access network shared folders or workgroup computers, showing the following one of the issues.
1.     Cannot access shared files and folders or browse computers.
2.     You cannot locate other computers in the workgroup.
3.     Showing the error “Workgroup Name is not accessible. You may not have permission to use this network resource.”

Solution
  The problem may occur due to the following cases
1. The Computer Browser service is not started on one or more computers in the workgroup.
2. NetBIOS over TCP/IP is enabled on one or more computers in the workgroup.

Recommended
Update windows XP service pack 3.

Method1:
Open the registry editor and locate the path as shown below
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\System\CurrentControlSet\Services\NetBt\Parameters.
On the right pane delete the following values if they are exists.
              1.NodeType
              2.DhcpNodeType
Restart the computer.

Method 2:
Run the Fixit Utility Microsoft Fix it 50135 available from Microsoft website.
Downloadlink:http://download.microsoft.com/download/8/1/A/81AD4B33-1946-41B5-8D55-9EEE085F0006/MicrosoftFixit50135.msi.

Method 3:
Type the command ncpa.cpl on command prompt. Right click on the Local Area Connection
And select properties. On general Tab select advanced option. Click the WINS Tab. Under Netbios Settings.
click Enable NetBIOS over TCP/IP. Apply ok and restart the PC.

Method 4:
Open the services option by typing the services.msc on command prompt. Locate the Browser services and try to start.
Method 5:
Type the command ncpa.cpl on command prompt. Right click on the Local Area Connection
And select properties. Select the General Tab, and select the File and Print Sharing for Microsoft Networks. Click Install.
Make sure that File and printer sharing services is  blocked by windows firewall.

Method 6:

Apply the Fixit Utility Microsoft Fix it 50393 from Microsoft


Restart the computer.


                               

Windows cannot load your profile because it may be corrupted. You may be logged in using a temporary User Profile


Windows cannot load your profile because it may be corrupted. You may be logged in using a temporary User Profile
Release
Windows XP, Windows 7

Problem
When we trying to boot the windows showing the error “The user profile service failed the login. User profile cannot be loaded.”

Solution
This issue may occur if the user profile folder was deleted manually. A profile folder that is manually deleted does not remove the Security Identifier (SID) from the profile list in the registry. For solving the above problem we used the third party utility called  Reprofier.
Login with default login user account. Open the Reprofiler utility. Select the corrupted user profile and select assign as shown in figure.


And restart the machine

                               ****************

 --

General Printer Troubleshooting


                          General Printer Troubleshooting





Showing "0x80070002" or "0x80070003" error code after downloading updates from Windows Update



Showing "0x80070002" or "0x80070003" error code after downloading updates from Windows Update
Release
Windows 7 Service Pack 1

Problem
When we trying to update windows 7 , update may failed and a red X mark will appear near to the update window with some error code like 0x80070002 or 0x80070003 or 80070652.



Solution
This problem occurs when some files in the update are missing, even though the update is downloaded and extracted successfully.

Method 1
 Open the services by typing services.msc on command prompt. Click stop the Automatic updates service.
Rename the software Distribution directory located at C:\windows as software Distributionbak.
To do this, type the command cd %windir% on command prompt. Press enter.
Type ren SoftwareDistribution  SoftwareDistributionbak and press enter. Type exit and enter again.
Restart the Automatic updates services. And restart the PC.

Method 2
Reset the Windows Updates Components by using the Microsoft Fix it 50202 from the following the Microsoft link
After downloading the Fix, execute the file and restart the PC after finish it.



Windows Cannot Load the Locally Stored Profile


                                                                  Windows Cannot Load the Locally Stored Profile
Release
             Windows xp

Problem
              While logging User Name, it will come.  if you give “ok” desktop will load without any icons And we cannot change any user settings .
Even if we made any changes that will not be saved .After Reboot the system , Our existing settings will be lose .




Solution
    
    Create a New User Account:
          To create a new User Account in Following Steps:
·         Start computer in safe mode , and then restart the computer ,
    1. After power on system self  test press “F8”  key,
    2. On the Windows Advanced Options menu, use the ARROW keys to select Safe Mode, and    then press ENTER.
    3. To select the operating system to start.
    4. Log on as Administrator.
    5. In Control Panel, click User Accounts.
    6. Create a new user account. Windows makes a new directory for the account in the          Documents and Settings folder.
    7. Quit User Accounts and Reboot the system.
    8. Create User Account in Command line :
Syntax : net user /add [username password ]
e.g. # net user /add usd hcl123  
user name :usd
Password   : hcl123
Note: via command line created user is Limited user only.




Desktop Icons loading very slow in WIndows XP


Desktop Icons loading very slow
Release
Windows XP

Problem

          After booting in to windows the all desktop icons appears only after 4-5 minutes.

Solution

   Possible causes
  1. More Startup programs.
  2. Any startup antivirus scan.
  3. User profile corruption
  4. ShellIconCache file may be corrupted

In this case shellIconCache file got corrupted. Its a hidden file located at windows directory which contains a copy of the all default desktop icons. To resolve this issue, recreate the ShellIconCache file by deleting it.
Open the folder options by typing the control folders on RUN prompt. Select View  and select Show hidden files and folders and click OK.


 Locate the patch C:\Documents and Settings\Your User Name\Local Settings\Application Data. Delete the file Iconcache.db.


 Restart  the computer.



           

Error USB device has exceeded the power limits of its hub port



Error USB device has exceeded the power limits of its hub port
Release
Windows XP

Problem

          When Connecting a USB device to a USB port on a computer or Hub showing the error USB device has exceeded the power limits of its hub port or power surge on USB HUB.


Solution
USB devices are allowed to consumes a maximum of 500 milliamps (mA) per connection from the USB port on the some computer system. After  Microsoft released   Service Pack 2, if a USB device attempts to draw more than 500 milliamp, a popup message is displayed to indicate the over current condition.
This error does not mean that the non functionality of the USB ports. To prevent  this power surge indication error , follow the below steps
  
Open the device manager by typing the devmgmt.msc  on the command prompt. Expand the Universal Serial Bus controllers option. Right click and select the properties of the USB Universal Host controller.




 Click the advanced option. Then select the check box Don't tell me about USB errors. Apply ok and close the all screens.


Low Disk space error



Low Disk Space Error
Release
Windows XP

Problem

          Showing the error You are running very low on disk space on Local Disk (C).To free space on this drive by deleting old or unnecessary files, click here..

Solution

   Possible causes

  1. EC2 may be  installed on the particular machine.
  2. Partition size very less.
  3. Any antivirus quarantine files.
  4. My document folder consumes more space.
  5. Any mail client store folder takes more space.
  6. Improper virtual memory settings.
  7. May be hibernation enabled.
  8. Temporary files and folders .
  9. Any system logs or dumps files.
  10. Huge Application programs.

In this case shows Pchealth folder located at %windor%\ consumes 9.8GB. Under Pchealth folder shows 2 folders named QHEADLES and QSIGNOFF folders.





Deleted both folders.